Strategies for Transitioning From PECS to SGD. Part 2: Maintaining Communication Competency The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an evidence-based AAC system that often is chosen as a first intervention for young children with complex communication needs who are not developing spoken communication. Speech language pathologists (SLPs) often plan to transition to a speech-generating device (SGD) for long-term use after students ... Article
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Article  |   April 2012
Strategies for Transitioning From PECS to SGD. Part 2: Maintaining Communication Competency
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lori Frost
    Pyramid Educational Consultants, Newark, DE
  • Joy Silverman McGowan
    Easter Seals of Southeastern Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
  • Copyright © 2012 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Augmentative & Alternative Communication / Articles
Article   |   April 2012
Strategies for Transitioning From PECS to SGD. Part 2: Maintaining Communication Competency
SIG 12 Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication, April 2012, Vol. 21, 3-10. doi:10.1044/aac21.1.3
SIG 12 Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication, April 2012, Vol. 21, 3-10. doi:10.1044/aac21.1.3
Abstract

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an evidence-based AAC system that often is chosen as a first intervention for young children with complex communication needs who are not developing spoken communication. Speech language pathologists (SLPs) often plan to transition to a speech-generating device (SGD) for long-term use after students successfully progress through the PECS protocol. The minimum criterion for device selection and purchase should be appropriate and independent use of the SGD across environments. The transition process should begin with an assessment of the student's PECS skills so modifications can be made to facilitate the transition to the SGD. Teaching strategies that are part of the PECS protocol are used to teach spontaneous, efficient, and effective use of the SGD. Successful transition occurs when the student uses the SGD in social interactions similar to his use of PECS and when he or she has developed the skills that will ensure continued language growth.

When a student is not developing spoken language, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) implement an augmentative communication (AAC) system with the goal of enhancing the individual's communication competency across communication partners and multiple environments. For many practitioners working with individuals with complex communication needs, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a likely first strategy. PECS is an evidence-based, empirically validated AAC system that is easily implemented from the very beginning of intervention (Sulzer-Azaroff, Hoffman, Horton, Bondy, & Frost, 2009).
A typical beginning PECS user is a young individual who has not developed spoken communication and whose motivation to communicate is based on a preference for accessing tangible outcomes rather than social outcomes. In Phases 1 and 2, students learn to exchange a single picture with a communicative partner (CP) and to be persistent at getting and maintaining the CP's attention. In Phase 3, they learn picture discrimination and begin expanding the vocabulary contained in their PECS book. In Phase 4, students learn to construct sentences and then to expand those sentences to include descriptive words.
In Part 1 of this article (December, 2011), we described the decision-making process in determining whether or not to transition from PECS to an SGD. A PECS user should have mastered Phase 4 of the PECS Protocol (Frost & Bondy, 2002) to ensure that he or she can find and interact with a CP by exchanging a Sentence Strip (SS) containing a picture sentence she or he has built in correct sequence and with correct pictures. The PECS user has a communication book containing pictures that are arranged by category and an SS that is always visible as she or he navigates through the pages of her or his book to retrieve pictures to add to the SS. Additionally, the PECS user should be a persistent communicator in that she or he initiates the communicative interaction rather than waiting to be prompted to communicate and he or she persists in engaging the attention of a CP until the interaction is successful. The skills mastered through PECS Phase 4 can provide the foundation for successful use of an SGD.
The SLP should consider specific features of an SGD when choosing a device for the transition from PECS. The goal is to choose a device that will accommodate the student's current communication skills and allow for continued growth. We identified 5 criteria for successful transition, the device must (a) allow for independent access to the current PECS vocabulary and for vocabulary growth, (b) allow for an equal or better rate of initiation, (c) accommodate the student's current message length and allow for expansion, (d) be intelligible across environments, and (e) be as efficient or better than PECS in speed of encoding and delivering a message. Device selection features should meet all of these criteria.
Assessing Communication Skills
A critical step in beginning the device selection process is to evaluate the student's current PECS skills by conducting a PECS language sample across several days. The analysis of the PECS language sample should summarize the communicative context or activity, whether each PECS exchange is student-initiated or prompted, whether the student accurately uses each of his symbols, how frequently PECS exchanges occur, average and best SS length (message length), and information on range of communicative contexts and partners. This information can be summarized (See Table 1 for a sample PECS to SGD transition candidate) for quick reference when choosing an SGD and when creating a plan to teach SGD use.
Table 1. Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate
Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate×
Student Amy
Age 6 years, 2 months
PECS Phase Mastered V
Attributes Used 6 colors, big/little
# Different Contexts/Activities 18
# Communicative Partners 16
Number of Different Pictures 220
Number of Intelligible Spoken Words 0
Average Rate of PECS Exchanges 18/hour
Mean # Pictures/Exchange 2.64
Typical Sentence Length 2 pictures
Best Sentence Length 5 pictures
Table 1. Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate
Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate×
Student Amy
Age 6 years, 2 months
PECS Phase Mastered V
Attributes Used 6 colors, big/little
# Different Contexts/Activities 18
# Communicative Partners 16
Number of Different Pictures 220
Number of Intelligible Spoken Words 0
Average Rate of PECS Exchanges 18/hour
Mean # Pictures/Exchange 2.64
Typical Sentence Length 2 pictures
Best Sentence Length 5 pictures
×
Fine-Tuning PECS to Prepare for SGD Use
Once a device has been selected based on the criteria described in Part 1, the transition process should begin before the device arrives. Several key factors should be addressed to ensure smooth transition to the SGD.
Access
Most SGDs that meet the needs of a student transitioning from PECS will involve accessing the device and its vocabulary via touch screens. The student will use an isolated finger to touch a specific picture or navigation button while taking care not to activate the surrounding icons. In addition, several mobile technologies and applications require the student to use a carefully graded swiping motion to activate the device and navigate through their vocabulary pages. A PECS user who has mastered Phase 4 should be exchanging the SS and then pointing to each picture on the Strip as the CP reads it. If the student is not pointing to each picture on the SS with an isolated finger, a member of the team should begin teaching this using physical prompting.
Portability/Availability Across Environments
In Phase 2 of PECS, the student learns to carry his PECS book to various activities and locations throughout his day. The team should expect that the student will do the same with the SGD. While preparing for the transition, the team should ensure that the student independently moves throughout his day and does not require reminders or prompts to get or carry his book. If this has not been expected or taught, the team should recognize this limitation to spontaneous and independent communication and teach the skill before transitioning to the device. Input from an occupational or physical therapist is valuable in determining the best way for the student to carry the SGD once it has arrived.
Audience
Communication as a social interaction is inherent in PECS as the user is required to approach and interact with a CP by exchanging a single picture or an SS. PECS Phase 2 teaches a student to be persistent in gaining the CP's attention; the student learns to go find the CP and to persist in interacting with the CP who might be distracted by other students or activities. Many assume that the SGD's “voice” will be able to gain the CP's attention. A student who has learned to persist in finding and getting the attention of the CP likely will bring this persistence to SGD use and the team should prepare to teach the student to bring a CP to the device or the device to the CP. Additionally, the team should develop lessons to address student “repair strategies” for when the SGD's voice is not heard in noisy environments.
Vocabulary
Depending on the selected device, the student's PECS vocabulary should be categorized by pages in the book to match the categorization that will be used in the device. A tab with the category symbol contained in the device can be added to each page of the PECS book. The team should assess the student's use of the symbol set that will be used in the device. This can be done by gradually replacing current PECS symbols with new symbols and conducting periodic correspondence checks (see Table 2).
Table 2. Sample Correspondence Check
Sample Correspondence Check×
Communicative Partner Student
Show student 2-3 preferred items and wait
Gives single picture
Offers items and says "Take it," or "Go ahead," etc.
Takes item corresponding to picture
Table 2. Sample Correspondence Check
Sample Correspondence Check×
Communicative Partner Student
Show student 2-3 preferred items and wait
Gives single picture
Offers items and says "Take it," or "Go ahead," etc.
Takes item corresponding to picture
×
Once the SGD has arrived, the team should program it beginning with those items/pages/navigation buttons that will allow the student to use the most frequently used vocabulary and sentence constructions within PECS. Keep in mind that independent SGD use on the part of the student will involve constructing sentences in a manner similar to how they were constructed within PECS but that additional skills critical to independence will include navigation skills, voice activation skills, and skills necessary to maintaining the social interaction inherent in PECS.
Caregiver Support/Knowledge of the System
As a student progresses through the PECS protocol, the family is involved in training to ensure carryover into the home environment. These training sessions include both an explanation of the rationale for selecting PECS for their child as well as multiple trials of practice for each of the PECS stages their child is mastering. Family members and caregivers should be aware of the assessments being conducted during the device selection process and should participate in readying the student for the transition. Because the training procedures used in the PECS protocol are being applied with our SGD training, the transition often is very straightforward. We expect that the family's support and interest will be similar to the level they participated in when training their child with PECS.
The Transition Process
Dynamic display SGD software programs and applications include similar methods/processes to retrieve and select vocabulary. Most devices offer flexible programming options, so the team should organize the vocabulary so that retrieval and generative use of the vocabulary will be similar to that used in PECS and to minimize button pushes/activations. To ensure the user is able to formulate grammatically and syntactically generative sentences, the majority of the vocabulary should be programmed as single words rather than complete phrases. Many devices include prestored pages of common vocabulary (food, toys, animals, places, etc.) arranged in categories. It is important that duplication of the vocabulary across pages be kept to a minimum. Vocabulary items that pertain to multiple contexts (e.g., Sentence Starters, eat, play, colors, etc.) should be incorporated into vocabulary located on the main page, similar to the main page of the student's PECS book. The student transitioning from PECS to the SGD is accustomed to building a multipicture sentence, approaching the CP, and giving the SS to the CP who then reads/speaks the message. Most SGDs offer the option to “speak” each picture as it is activated or to combine several pictures into a phrase or sentence and then speak the entire message. The latter option is consistent with the auditory and visual feedback the PECS user is provided with when he or she exchanges the Sentence Strip and then points to each picture while the CP reads them. Category or folder buttons should not speak or appear in the message window.
Fluent use of the SGD will require that the student learn the sequence required to access specific vocabulary items. This will involve the use of various navigation features that will allow the student to move between page displays, open and close specific pages, activate the “speak” feature of the device, and clear the display or message window at the end of each communicative interaction.
Initial lessons with the SGD should be conducted with activities that are familiar and motivating to the PECS user and during which he or she interacts with the CP for a variety of communicative exchanges. The team should create a comprehensive task analysis for a successful interaction via the SGD that includes accessing and turning on the device, navigating to and selecting the correct vocabulary to construct the message, activating the voice, and preparing the device for the next communicative exchange. See Table 3 for sample task analyses for a request using PECS, mobile technology, or SGDs. The initial SGD lesson should be designed for maximum success. The team should determine if the entire sequence delineated in the task analysis should be taught or if only a portion should be taught. Simplifying the sequence typically involves not requiring the student to complete the initial steps involving turning on the device and navigating to the correct application or screen or the final steps such as clearing the message window to prepare the device for the next communicative interaction. The team could also hide certain vocabulary items on a specific page or display so as to make activation of a particular button easier. This feature is available on most SGDs either directly as a button option or through customized programming strategies. Because the student is already familiar with navigating between pages within the PECS book, we recommend requiring the student to learn the steps involving navigating from page to page. These steps typically involve opening folders or categories and then closing pages or using a “back” navigation button. Creative programming can decrease the number of steps the student is required to perform. For example, some devices can be set so that when a category or folder is opened and a selection is made, the device returns to the previous screen so that the student doesn't have to use the ‘back’ button.
Table 3. Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”
Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”×
PECS Mobile Technology With App SGD
Get book Get device Get device
Turn on device Turn on device
Navigate to app
Move “I want” picture to SS Push “I want” Push “I want”
Turn to attribute page Push “attributes” Push “colors”
Move ‘yellow’ to Sentence Strip Push “yellow” Push “yellow”
Push “back”
Turn to “toy” page Push “toys” Push “toys”
Move “car” to SS Push “car” Push “car”
Remove SS
Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner
Exchange SS Touch message window Touch message window
Tap pictures as CP reads SS
Return pictures and SS to appropriate location in PECS book Clear message window Clear message window
Table 3. Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”
Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”×
PECS Mobile Technology With App SGD
Get book Get device Get device
Turn on device Turn on device
Navigate to app
Move “I want” picture to SS Push “I want” Push “I want”
Turn to attribute page Push “attributes” Push “colors”
Move ‘yellow’ to Sentence Strip Push “yellow” Push “yellow”
Push “back”
Turn to “toy” page Push “toys” Push “toys”
Move “car” to SS Push “car” Push “car”
Remove SS
Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner
Exchange SS Touch message window Touch message window
Tap pictures as CP reads SS
Return pictures and SS to appropriate location in PECS book Clear message window Clear message window
×
PECS Training Protocol Procedures
The PECS protocol encompasses a variety of teaching strategies from the field of applied behavior analysis in general and from The Pyramid Approach to Education (Bondy, 2011) specifically. Within the PECS lessons and the Pyramid Approach to Education, we differentiate between prompts and cues. Prompts are assistance that an instructor adds to the lesson to ensure that the student engages in new skills. Prompts can be verbal, physical, gestural, model, or other. Cues are the natural conditions under which the new skill should occur. For example, prompts to request a desired item can be verbal (“What do you want?”, “Use your words”, “Push the button”), gestural (pointing to the SGD or PECS book or showing an expectant look), or physical (moving a student's hand to the picture or button). The cue to request a desired item is the desire for the item and perhaps seeing the item. A lesson to teach a new skill begins with identifying which prompt to use along with a plan for eliminating the prompt. The key to a successful lesson is that it results in a student being able to perform the skill independently of our prompts and only in response to the cue. When we first teach use of the SGD, we must be aware of which prompts we will use to teach the new skills and we must plan how we will eliminate those prompts so that the student uses the SGD independently.
Critical training strategies that are part of the PECS protocol that will be used in initial SGD lessons include the 2-person prompt procedure, backward chaining, correspondence checks, the 4-step error correction procedure, and the backstep error correction procedure (Frost & Bondy, 2002).
2-Person Prompt Procedure To Teach Initiation
A communicative partner faces the student and controls access to the desired item or activity and a physical prompter (PP) sits behind the student to physically prompt the student to exchange the picture or push the correct buttons on the device. To ensure spontaneous communicative exchanges, the PP cannot prompt the student before the student initiates within the interaction. For the PECS student, this initial initiation will take the form of reaching for the correct pictures on/in the PECS book. For our very first SGD lesson, we have the PECS book available to the student so that the PP does not prompt before the student's initiation to the PECS book. Once the student initiates a request by reaching for his or her PECS picture, the PP physically prompts the student through the entire motor sequence detailed in the task analysis for that particular communicative exchange. Over subsequent opportunities to request the item or activity, the PP continues to wait for the initiation and then systematically fades physical prompts either from the end of the sequence (backward chaining) or the beginning of the sequence (forward chaining). The goal of this initial lesson is for the student to initiate the interaction by independently accessing and navigating the SGD rather than reaching for the PECS book.
Backward Chaining
Backward chaining involves prompting the student through each step of a task analysis and eliminating prompts over subsequent performances of the sequence from the back-end, or last steps, of the Task Analysis. Within SGD use, these last steps often will be approaching the CP or gaining the CP's attention and then activating the message window so that the entire message is spoken.
Correspondence Checks
Correspondance checks are used to determine, within a functional communicative context, if the student is using the correct symbol (See Table 1). Once the student independently completes the sequence to request a familiar item on a simplified display, the team should arrange for more vocabulary to be available on a particular page or display. To test the student's picture discrimination accuracy, the team should conduct a correspondence check. When the student completes the sequence to request a specific item, the CP directs the student to “Go ahead” or “Take it.” To ensure that the student is attending to the picture and not the CP's voice, the CP does not name the item during the correspondence check. If the student takes the item that corresponds to the requested item, we consider this an accurate correspondence check and an indication that the student is using the symbol correctly. If the student attempts to take an item that does not correspond to the item requested, we consider this an incorrect correspondence check and an indication that the student is not using the symbol correctly. We do not allow access (we do not reward or reinforce incorrect symbol use), but rather respond to this mistake with the 4-step error correction procedure (Frost and Bondy, 2002).
4-Step Error Correction Procedure
The 4-step error correction procedure ensures that the student learns to use a correct symbol independently rather than in response to a CP modeling the correct symbol. If, during the correspondence check, the student attempts to take an item that does not correspond to what he or she requested via the SGD, the CP blocks access to the item and begins the error correction procedure. To teach the student to use the picture that corresponds with what he or she wants, the CP models the correct picture by activating that button. The CP then prompts the student to activate that button in order to practice using the correct symbol. The CP does not grant access to the item at that point in time so that the student does not learn to use the picture correctly only in response to the teacher model. Rather, the CP switches the task by distracting the student for a moment to perform a short and easy task (“Clap your hands!”). The CP then presents the available items again, waits for the student to ask again and once again says, “Go ahead.” If the student now takes the item that corresponds to the requested item, she or he is allowed access. See Table 4.
Table 4. Example of 4-Step Error Correction
Example of 4-Step Error Correction×
Step Communicative Partner Student
1. Model Entice with both items Touches picture
“Here” “Take it.” Reaches for noncorresponding item
Block access. Point to or touch picture corresponding to desired item Student looks at target picture
2. Practice Prompt student to touch correct picture Touches correct picture
Praise (do not give item)
3. Switch “Do this” (while doing motor task) Student imitates task
4. Repeat Show both items Touches correct picture
Allow access
Table 4. Example of 4-Step Error Correction
Example of 4-Step Error Correction×
Step Communicative Partner Student
1. Model Entice with both items Touches picture
“Here” “Take it.” Reaches for noncorresponding item
Block access. Point to or touch picture corresponding to desired item Student looks at target picture
2. Practice Prompt student to touch correct picture Touches correct picture
Praise (do not give item)
3. Switch “Do this” (while doing motor task) Student imitates task
4. Repeat Show both items Touches correct picture
Allow access
×
Backstep Error Correction Procedure
This procedure is used when students make sequential errors. Specifically, within PECS or within constructing a message on the SGD, if the student builds a message with symbols in the wrong order, rather than just modeling the correct sequence, we take the student back in the sequence to the last step where he or she was correct and then prompt forward. We then differentially reinforce this request by allowing more limited access to the requested item (smaller serving, less time with an item) than we would have had the sequence been initially correct. For example, in the task analysis above for requesting a yellow car, if the student constructs the sentence “I want car yellow,” to take the student to the last correct step in the sequence, the CP would clear the display window so that only “I want” remains and then prompt the student to activate “yellow” and then “car.” Differential reinforcement of this teacher-assisted response (less reinforcement) helps to ensure that the student is motivated to learn and perform the correct sequence independently.
Long-Term Success
Initial SGD lessons often involve simplifying the responses required of the student and creating structured lessons to teach initial communicative interactions. We discussed teaching a portion of the task analysis as a way to simplify the sequence of steps for the student. Often, these simplifications include not requiring the student to turn on the device, navigate to the home page or open the application, close windows or pages, and clear the display between communicative interactions. Long-term, independent, and generative use of the SGD will require that the student master these navigation strategies, so lessons should soon incorporate these requirements. In other words, if the initial task analyses were simplified, all steps should be reincorporated and the student taught to complete the entire sequence with assistance from the PP.
While structured SGD training lessons are being created and conducted, the student should continue to have access to his or her PECS book throughout the day. As the student becomes more proficient at navigating the SGD in structured activities, the team should gradually start requiring the student to use the SGD across activities and environments. Even when the student is using the SGD for all communicative interactions, the PECS book should remain available as a back-up strategy if the SGD becomes nonoperational.
Mastery of any augmentative or alternative communication system requires structured training procedures that are implemented consistently and coupled with immediate reinforcement. We introduce SGDs with PECS users who have demonstrated independent and generative communication. Our expectations regarding functional communication should not be compromised or lowered with the introduction of an SGD. The minimum criterion for device purchase should be that it allows appropriate and independent use of the SGD across environments. Occasionally, it may be apparent that an individual's initial use of an SGD is not adequately progressing. In these cases the device and/or the teaching strategies associated with introducing the device should be re-evaluated and practice with that or a different system reinstituted when the barriers to successful SGD use have been identified and strategies for overcoming them have been outlined.
The introduction of an SGD to a student, family, and team is often an emotional endeavor. SLPs must maintain their role and ethical obligation “to evaluate the effectiveness of services rendered and of products dispensed,” and to “provide services or dispense products only when benefit can reasonably be expected” (ASHA 2010). Technological advances in the field of AAC have benefited many of our clients. We must be mindful that our goal remains functional communication, and that SGDs are only tools that may help to develop communication competency.
References
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2010). Code of Ethics [Ethics]. Available from www.asha.org/policy
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2010). Code of Ethics [Ethics]. Available from www.asha.org/policy×
Bondy, A. (2011). The Pyramid approach to education. Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Consultants.
Bondy, A. (2011). The Pyramid approach to education. Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Consultants.×
Frost, L., & Bondy, A. (2002). The Picture Exchange Communication System Training Manual, 2nd Edition. Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Consultants.
Frost, L., & Bondy, A. (2002). The Picture Exchange Communication System Training Manual, 2nd Edition. Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Consultants.×
Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Hoffman, A., Horton, C., Bondy, A., & Frost, L. (2009). The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): What do the data say? Focus on Autism, 24, 89–103. [Article]
Sulzer-Azaroff, B., Hoffman, A., Horton, C., Bondy, A., & Frost, L. (2009). The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): What do the data say? Focus on Autism, 24, 89–103. [Article] ×
Table 1. Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate
Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate×
Student Amy
Age 6 years, 2 months
PECS Phase Mastered V
Attributes Used 6 colors, big/little
# Different Contexts/Activities 18
# Communicative Partners 16
Number of Different Pictures 220
Number of Intelligible Spoken Words 0
Average Rate of PECS Exchanges 18/hour
Mean # Pictures/Exchange 2.64
Typical Sentence Length 2 pictures
Best Sentence Length 5 pictures
Table 1. Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate
Sample PECS to SGD Transition Candidate×
Student Amy
Age 6 years, 2 months
PECS Phase Mastered V
Attributes Used 6 colors, big/little
# Different Contexts/Activities 18
# Communicative Partners 16
Number of Different Pictures 220
Number of Intelligible Spoken Words 0
Average Rate of PECS Exchanges 18/hour
Mean # Pictures/Exchange 2.64
Typical Sentence Length 2 pictures
Best Sentence Length 5 pictures
×
Table 2. Sample Correspondence Check
Sample Correspondence Check×
Communicative Partner Student
Show student 2-3 preferred items and wait
Gives single picture
Offers items and says "Take it," or "Go ahead," etc.
Takes item corresponding to picture
Table 2. Sample Correspondence Check
Sample Correspondence Check×
Communicative Partner Student
Show student 2-3 preferred items and wait
Gives single picture
Offers items and says "Take it," or "Go ahead," etc.
Takes item corresponding to picture
×
Table 3. Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”
Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”×
PECS Mobile Technology With App SGD
Get book Get device Get device
Turn on device Turn on device
Navigate to app
Move “I want” picture to SS Push “I want” Push “I want”
Turn to attribute page Push “attributes” Push “colors”
Move ‘yellow’ to Sentence Strip Push “yellow” Push “yellow”
Push “back”
Turn to “toy” page Push “toys” Push “toys”
Move “car” to SS Push “car” Push “car”
Remove SS
Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner
Exchange SS Touch message window Touch message window
Tap pictures as CP reads SS
Return pictures and SS to appropriate location in PECS book Clear message window Clear message window
Table 3. Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”
Task Analyses for “I Want Yellow Car”×
PECS Mobile Technology With App SGD
Get book Get device Get device
Turn on device Turn on device
Navigate to app
Move “I want” picture to SS Push “I want” Push “I want”
Turn to attribute page Push “attributes” Push “colors”
Move ‘yellow’ to Sentence Strip Push “yellow” Push “yellow”
Push “back”
Turn to “toy” page Push “toys” Push “toys”
Move “car” to SS Push “car” Push “car”
Remove SS
Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner Approach communicative partner
Exchange SS Touch message window Touch message window
Tap pictures as CP reads SS
Return pictures and SS to appropriate location in PECS book Clear message window Clear message window
×
Table 4. Example of 4-Step Error Correction
Example of 4-Step Error Correction×
Step Communicative Partner Student
1. Model Entice with both items Touches picture
“Here” “Take it.” Reaches for noncorresponding item
Block access. Point to or touch picture corresponding to desired item Student looks at target picture
2. Practice Prompt student to touch correct picture Touches correct picture
Praise (do not give item)
3. Switch “Do this” (while doing motor task) Student imitates task
4. Repeat Show both items Touches correct picture
Allow access
Table 4. Example of 4-Step Error Correction
Example of 4-Step Error Correction×
Step Communicative Partner Student
1. Model Entice with both items Touches picture
“Here” “Take it.” Reaches for noncorresponding item
Block access. Point to or touch picture corresponding to desired item Student looks at target picture
2. Practice Prompt student to touch correct picture Touches correct picture
Praise (do not give item)
3. Switch “Do this” (while doing motor task) Student imitates task
4. Repeat Show both items Touches correct picture
Allow access
×